CAETS History and Summary of Activity, 1978 - 1999
CAETS Endorsement of Member Activities
List of CAETS Convocations
During the first years of the 1970's, a number of informal discussions took place within the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, within the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, and between the two regarding communications among the engineering academies. The developed conclusion was that occasional meetings of the leaders of engineering academies to exchange information on their activities and to discuss issues of mutual interest would be beneficial to all.
On October 31, 1978, the NAE/US organized and Chaired the first International Convocation of Academies of Engineering and Similar Institutions in Washington, D.C. Academies represented were ATS, ATV, NAE/Mexico, The Fellowship of Engineering, NAE/US, IVA, and the Finnish Academy of Technical Sciences. Engineers from Israel and India were also present. In addition to presentations on the histories, functions, and objectives of the academies, the participants discussed:
- The relationship of an academy of engineering
- with its own society (the public, government, industry, technical societies).
- with its sister academy of sciences.
- with other national academies of engineering, including linkages among such academies.
IVA was requested to Chair a Planning Committee to organize a second convocation.
The Second Convocation of Engineering and Like Academies, an informal federation, was hosted by ATS in Melbourne, Australia on April 8-9, 1980. The topic, The Management of Technological Change, was addressed by statements from representatives of the academies of Sweden, US, UK, Mexico, and Australia. Participants from Yugoslavia, India, and Japan also made statements. An informal secretariat for information exchange was established at NAE/US.
On September 21-22, 1981, the Third Convocation of Engineering Academies and Like Organizations was held in Oaxaca, Mexico hosted by the NAE/Mexico with presentations from participants on "national" developments in Engineering Education.
At the conclusion of the Third Convocation, the participants decided that some structure for this loose "international federation" would be useful. ATS succeeded to the Presidency of the Committee, now the Steering Committee, composed of IVA, NAE/US, ATS, and NAE/Mexico. NAE/Mexico was elected Vice President.
The Fourth Convocation of Engineering Academies, hosted by IVA on May 29 - June 1, 1983 in Stockholm, Sweden, was a departure from the format of the earlier Convocations. A broad topic-Important Technological Trends-was selected and five Academies were requested to organize sessions, each for a specific area of technology with three or four speakers. It was not necessary that all speakers be from CAETS Member countries.
The sessions were arranged to cover:
- Aviation (The Fellowship/UK)
- State of the art and questions for the future, horizons in aircraft development, aircraft development potentials for future civil market needs, future trends in helicopter technology
- Biotechnology (NAE/US)
- Impact of genetic engineering on biotechnology and conventional fields of Engineering, fermentation and biotechnology (research, applications, and trends), new plants and new plant products by direct gene transfer
- Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science (NAE/Mexico)
- Applied artificial technology, exploration of knowledge and the algorithm of the human brain, a computational theory of engineering design
- New Materials (ATS)
- New technology, electronic and non-metallic materials
- Robotics and Automated Production (IVA)
- The automated factory for small lot production, factory automation using robots; trend to automated production
The meeting of the Steering Committee following the Fourth Convocation concluded that in view of the growing international interest and participation, it would be useful to form an umbrella engineering organization to be titled Convocation of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences. It would be headed by an International President and a Vice President, offices that would rotate among members every two years. NAE/Mexico was named the International President and NAE/US the Vice President. A Convocation Secretariat was established at NAE/US as a central point of contact and to provide continuity. Guidelines for Convocation organization and attendance were adopted and The Fellowship joined the Steering Committee.
At a Planning Meeting in Washington, D.C. on November 3, 1983 the Steering Committee, in addition to discussing the location and theme of the next Convocation, considered at length the objectives, nature and character of the Convocation, and the criteria and method for admission of new members. NAE/Mexico and NAE/US were requested to prepare a draft document of objectives and rules to be discussed at the next Steering Committee meeting.
The Fifth Convocation hosted by The Fellowship in London on June 10-14, 1985 followed the general pattern of organization and planning of the Fourth. Titled The Global Interaction of Technology, its five sessions addressed:
- Undersea Engineering (The Fellowship/UK)
- Undersea engineering, man working underwater, towed unmanned submersible, subsea engineering developments
- Global Technology and Food Production (ATS)
- Interactions of high technology industries with agricultural practice, remote sensing for agriculture, post-harvest techniques and global distribution
- Freight Transport (IVA)
- Future prospects and opportunities in water transport, rail transport, and air freight transport; problems with implementation of new concepts in international transport
- Telecommunications Technologies (NAE/Mexico)
- State of the art and implications, research and development - a look at the next 20 years, market needs, policies and trends in services
- Advances in Manufacturing Technologies (NAE/US)
- Technologies, advanced systems, artificial intelligence technologies in CAD/CAM and computer-integrated manufacturing
The subsequent Steering Committee meeting considered the draft "general rules" prepared by NAE/Mexico and NAE/US. While it was accepted as a "provisional" set of rules, the Committee made a number of changes and asked that a revised version be prepared. At the conclusion of the meeting, NAE/US was named President and ATS, Vice President.
On October 4, 1985 the five Members met in Washington, D.C., now as the Governing Board of the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences, to plan the Sixth Convocation and to consider the revisions to the "provisional" rules. After some additional changes, the first General Rules of the Council were adopted on October 4, 1985 by the five CAETS Founding Members, the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, The Fellowship of Engineering of the United Kingdom (title changed on July 1, 1992 to The Royal Academy of Engineering), the National Academy of Engineering of Mexico, the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.
The Sixth Convocation on Globalization of Technology hosted by the NAE/US in Washington, D.C. on May 30-April 1, 1987 was a move toward integration of the conference sessions. Addressing the Globalization of Technology, it was organized by the NAE/US which requested speaker suggestions from the Members. The arrangement of the sessions was as follows:
- Cutting Edge Technologies: Manufacturing, new materials, information.
- Changes in Industry Sectors Resulting from Technology Advances
- Construction, software, telecommunications
- Technology and the Global Economy: The Effects of Each on the Other (Panel Discussion)
- Regional and National Consequences of Globalizing Industry:
- Overall Assessment (Panel Discussion)
At the Governing Board meeting following the Convocation, the Members of the Council elected to membership the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, the first to join by process of election.
The first six Convocations and the early actions of the loosely federated academies through a Planning Committee and a Steering Committee set the direction, operating methods, organization, and governance of CAETS. The following is a summary of later CAETS Convocations.
Seventh Convocation: Hosted by ATS in Sydney, Australia on October 12-14, 1988.
Theme: Technology for Living on the Frontiers
Sessions: The Desert Frontiers (ATS, NAE/Mexico)
Australia's 200 years of expanding frontiers-the role of technology
Engineering for agriculture in the desert-technology for efficient use of water
The Frontier of Space (NAE/US)
Application and commercial opportunities of near earth orbit
Planetary science and engineering
Humans in space-getting them there, supporting them, enabling them to do things
Frontiers Under the Surface (The Fellowship/UK)
International provision of electrical power under the sea
Sydney's ocean outfalls for sewage disposal link the underground to the undersea-
planning and implementation
Frontiers of the North and South Polar Regions (IVA and ATV): Mining in polar
Regions; Logistics; Oil exploration and development in Canada's Arctic;
Housing and human settlement planning in cold climates
The Board meeting on October 16, 1988 approved the first CAETS Financial Policy with the principle of equal sharing of costs of operations by the members. The Board also considered the membership applications of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Council for Applied Sciences of the French Academy of Sciences, the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences, and the Finnish Academies of Technology. The Board admitted the Swiss Academy to Council membership. Consideration of the applications of the Norwegian and French institutions were postponed in order to obtain further information about their activities. The application of the Finnish Academy was deferred to a later meeting because of inadequate time for its review.
At its October 29, 1989 meeting in Stockholm, the Governing Board directed the convening of a working group to review the General Rules, structure and operations, taking into account the current and prospective increase in CAETS membership and the prospects of increased activity. The group was charged with suggesting revisions to the General Rules if considered appropriate. Also, the Board took up again the applications for membership of the Council for Applied Sciences of the French Academy of Sciences and the Finnish Academies of Technology, the latter representing both the Finnish Academy of Technology and the Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in Finland. The Board elected both applicants as the 8th and 9th Council members.
The working group met in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 7,8, 1990 and recommended a number of changes, including:
-a Governing Board consisting of all CAETS Members,
-an Officer structure of the President and a First Vice President with a term of office for each of
two years, and a Vice President/Secretary appointed by the Board for a term set by the Board, -voting by proxy for all Board decision, in writing and addressed to specific agenda topics.
The Board approved changes and the revised General Rules on November 9, 1990 at its meeting in Acapulco, Mexico.
Eighth Convocation: Hosted by NAE/Mexico in Acapulco, Mexico on Nov. 6-9, 1990.
Theme: Harnessing Technology for Development
Sessions: Technology and Economic Policy
Technological change and its role in economic development
Technology and economic development in developing countries
Technology and employment
Economic development, energy policy, and environmental protection
Rationalizing social and environmental needs with technological development
The International Flow of Technology
The impact of regional trading zones
Global corporations and the flow of technology
Strategies for technological change in developing countries
The Development and Management of Technology
University/industry/government links in economic development through
Science, technology, and the commercialization process
Manufacturing productivity and new technologies
Financing technology development
The Eighth Convocation was also an integrated program. Organized by NAE/Mexico, it included for the first time a session of three working groups to discuss the three conference speaker sessions and to prepare group views on these for consideration at the closing plenary.
Meeting after the Convocation, the Governing Board determined that the participants had reached consensus conclusions and findings during the final plenary session which were of significance and deserving of wide international dissemination. This was accomplished via a special CAETS report, "Harnessing Technology for Development: A Summary of the Eighth Convocation." It was presented as a summary of the Convocation and not as a recommendation of CAETS or any of its Member. The publication was distributed and well received. In other Board action, the Engineering Academy of Japan, the Belgian Academy Council of Applied Sciences, and the Norwegian Academy of Technical Sciences elected as members. The membership totaled 12.
Ninth Convocation: Hosted by ATV in Copenhagen, Denmark on May 19-22, 1992.
Theme: The Technological Future
Sessions: Technology and the Quality of Life
Agriculture and the food chain
Health and technology
The environment - technological opportunities
Framework for Technology
Realistic evaluation of risk
Sustaining Technological Development
Communication and mobility
The human factor and technology
Meeting on May 23, 1992 immediately after the Ninth Convocation, the Board reviewed again the rate of growth of CAETS, increasing costs, encouragement and selection of new members, and the mode of operations. In order to review these and other items related to the future direction of CAETS, the President was requested to convene a working group and to report its findings at the next meeting. The Board also elected the Canadian Academy of Engineering as the 13th member of the Council.
On November 10, 11, 1992 the working group met in Trondheim, Norway and presented its report to the Board in Irvine, California on January, 8, 1993. The Board approved the Trondheim report as representing the basic principles for continuing CAETS operations and requested that it form the basis for the preparation of a set of guidelines.
The meeting in Irvine initiated a variation in the content of Board meetings. For some time the Members, had expressed the desire to include at meetings of the Board, in addition to the business portion of the agenda, time for discussion of their individual activities and identification of common interests. In order to allow for this, the Irvine meeting was scheduled for a full day, with one half devoted to discussion of issues of high priority being addressed by the individual Members. The resulting areas exhibiting common interests were:
- engineering and the environment
- industrial productivity and competitiveness
- Russia and the countries of East and Central Europe
- technology transfer
- engineering education
The Board concluded that the discussions were of considerable value and that Board meetings during years without Convocations be extended to allow for similar interactions among Members.
Tenth Convocation: Hosted by SATW in Zurich, Switzerland on Sept. 14-18, 1993.
Theme: Sustainable Engineering: The Challenge of Developing Transportation for Society
Sessions: Worldwide Situation and Evolution
Transportation as an integral part of a global economy
Transportation and environment in large cities
Possibilities for developing countries to leapfrog in transport technology
(e.g.: India and Mexico)
Opportunities, constraints and policies of middle rank economies (e.g.: Australia)
Marine transportation and inland waterways
Information technology networking in transportation and logistics
Socio-economics of Transportation
Infrastructure networking: level of decision and continental adhesion
Transnational medium term strategies for transportation
Real cost of transportation and influence of pricing policies
Summaries, Conclusions and General Discussion
Recommendations in the short term
Opportunities in the long term
The future role of engineers and their academies
The Tenth Convocation included an innovation in program planning. SATW convened two working group meetings of invited experts and representatives of interested CAETS Members to assist in the design of the Convocation program.
At the Zurich Board meeting on September 17, 1993, the "Guidelines for CAETS Operations" was approved by the Board together with resulting changes to the General Rules and Financial Policy. Included in the document were statements of guiding principles, and recommendations for operations, Convocations, finances, CAETS products, CAETS association with Member activities, and institutional associations. The purpose of the Guidelines was to amplify portions of the General Rules and to document statements of policy derived from the General Rules and from decisions taken at Board meetings. The Board also elected as the 14th Council member the Netherlands Society of Technological Sciences and Engineering.
Meeting next on October 31, 1994 in Helsinki, Finland, the Members again discussed a number of priority issues of common interest. Those with highest Member priority, and noted as areas for continuing CAETS focus, were:
-engineering and environment
Also identified, as areas for consideration at a future meeting, were transportation and small/medium size companies.
Only in the area of engineering and environment was an extension of activity considered and approved. The Board decided to have prepared a draft policy paper to represent CAETS position. The paper, to be initially drafted by NAE/US, would reflect the ideas of the Members and would be a useful adjunct to the 11th Convocation which would address the topic of Creating Wealth in Harmony with the Environment: The Role of Engineers and their Academies. The draft would be circulated in advance of the conference to invited participants for discussion. The paper would then be considered by the Governing Board for possible revision in light of the discussions and for suitability for wide international distribution as a CAETS position statement. It was the sense of the Board that all future Convocation plans include consideration of such advance papers and their possible development into CAETS position statements.
In other action, the Board formally endorsed the RAEng conference on "Sustainable Development - The UK Strategy" to be held in September 1995.
Following the Helsinki Board meeting, NAE/US prepared a draft document and circulated it for comment to a working group comprised of representatives of IVA, EAJ, ATS, and RAEng. A second draft was then prepared and an international phone conference organized by NAE/US for further review. This review produced agreement in principle by the working group and a third draft was sent to all CAETS Members. The many thoughtful comments of the Members were then incorporated into the next draft that was sent to IVA for use as background for the next Convocation.
Eleventh Convocation: Hosted by IVA in Kiruna, Sweden on June 18-21, 1995.
Theme: Creating Wealth in Harmony with the Environment:
The Role of Engineers and their Academies
Sessions: Plenary presentations on topics leading to later working group activity:
The Ecological Scene
Energy and Sustainable Development
Environmental Strategies, Ethics and Management
Water-a Fundamental Condition of Life, an Engineering Approach
The Sustainable City
Ecological Products, Processes, and Life Cycle Issues
Ethics, Morals and Honesty
During the remainder of the conference, participants were organized into Working Groups on:
The Sustainable City
Water Supply, Use, and Recycling
Ecologically Benign Products and Processes
Life Cycle Assessment and Other Tools
The Working Group results were presented at the final plenary.
The Governing Board meeting in Kiruna was held in two sessions in view of the extended time required to review the draft CAETS position paper prepared after the Helsinki meeting. At the first session, the Board elected as 15th Council member the Hungarian Academy of Engineering. The Board also gave formal endorsement to the EAJ Fourth International Symposium on Technology Policy In A Borderless World Economy in Tokyo, Japan on September 11-12, 1996.
During the session held after the close of the Convocation, the Board reviewed the third draft of the document and considered additional suggestions offered by the Members and those from the reports of the Convocation working groups. A final draft document, titled The Role of Technology in Environmentally Sustainable Development; A Declaration of the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences, was adopted by the Board and signed by the representatives of Members attending. (Note: R.BACAS was not represented but did approve and signed later). During the meeting, the Board was informed that CAETS had been invited to present its document to the UN Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) to be held in Istanbul, Turkey in June 1996.
On May 31-June 1, 1996 in Istanbul, Turkey, at the invitation of the UN HABITAT II Conference organizers, CAETS and the IAP, the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues organized by Academies of Sciences, co-sponsored a Forum of Academies of Engineering and of Sciences to discuss statements prepared by CAETS and by IAP for presentation to the UN Conference. In addition, the Forum offered opportunities for the attending academies to present reports on their activities and studies pertinent to the issues addressed by the UN conference. The Forum was co-chaired by CAETS and the IAP.
Thirty four academies were represented, 29 science academies and 5 engineering academies. CAETS Members attending and were: the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Royal Academy of Engineering of the United Kingdom, and the National Academy of Engineering of the United States. The Chinese Academy of Engineering was also present. The registered Indian National Academy of Engineering did not attend but its paper was distributed to the Forum participants.
On June 6, 1996, the CAETS President was invited, together with the IAP Co-Chairmen, to appear before Committee II of the UN Conference to discuss the reports groups and to offer, as well, observations derived from the two-day Academies Forum. The Committee expressed considerable interest in the relevance of engineering and technology to the issues addressed by the conference. The Declaration, together with the IAP document, were accepted by the Committee II and included as attachments to report of the Committee to the Habitat II plenary, thus becoming part of the official proceedings of the of the Habitat II Conference.
The September 13, 1996 Governing Board meeting was held in Tokyo, Japan following the 4th International Symposium of the Engineering Academy of Japan. At the first session, the Board approved revisions to the General Rules, the Financial Policy, and the Guidelines for CAETS Operations. Following a report on the Istanbul UN Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) and at the Forum of Academies of Sciences and of Engineering, it was noted that the Science academy group (IAP) was considering a series of activities over the next several years with the possibility of another academies Forum in about five years. The IAP had also informally requested CAETS views on participating in such a second gathering to exchange views on a major area of interest to both sectors. The Board expressed interest and authorized the Executive Committee to continue exploring with IAP its plans and objectives without committing CAETS to any specific actions. Commitment would be considered when more information was available. The Vice President was requested to maintain contact with the IAP Washington representatives in behalf of the Executive Committee.
During the second session, each Member reviewed its programs and plans, commenting on areas on which it placed high priority both for its own country and internationally as well. Considerable importance was placed again on a variety of environmental issues, productivity, small business, energy, for example. By far, however, the consensus issue which all Members placed major emphasis was on the engineering education, the quality of both students and instructors, the standards of instruction, the condition of the of future engineering work force, etc. In view of the importance of the topic, the Board decided that it would devote two hours of the Board meeting in Edinburgh in May 1997 to continue the dialogue. The Board also requested the RAEng representative to prepare a short issue paper in order to provide focus for the discussion.
Twelfth Convocation: Hosted by RAEng in Edinburgh, Scotland on May 21-23, 1997
Theme: Engineering, Innovation & Society
Sessions: Plenary presentations on:
1. The World Scenario
2. Shaping the Future of Engineering
3. Customer Needs
Work shops on:
4. Making Innovation Happen: Organizing for Innovation; Financing Innovation;
5. Societal Aspects: Adapting to Innovation and Change; Innovations in
Communications; Innovation and Wealth Creation
6. Global Needs and Local Behavior: National and International Mechanisms;
Market Forces; The Developing World
As in the 5th Convocation held in London in 1985, the Twelfth Convocation was opened by HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Senior Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering. He spoke to the participants on the need for engineering and technological sciences to be seen in the broader perspective of the general welfare of the whole planet, comprehending the interrelationships between human activities and the physical and biological processes of the earth which make it possible for human life to continue. During the concluding plenary session, rapporteurs presented reports on the workshop discussions.
The Governing Board meeting on May 23, 1997 continued discussion of engineering education begun in Tokyo. In response to a query from the President on how CAETS could best contribute to the broad array of concerns expressed by the Members, NFTW offered to take the lead in setting up a CAETS Working Party to include all interested Members. When formed, a first task of the WP would be to collate statistics and identify the way ahead.
The Board also considered the future direction of CAETS with regard its objectives, organization and management, membership, activities, and international associations. The stimuli for the discussion included the number of additional Members which might be expected over the next 5 - 10 years, the increasing visibility of CAETS due in some measure to CAETS' participation in the Istanbul UN conference, and the interest of the UN Commission on Human Settlements (UNCHS) and the organization of science academies, the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) for continued association with CAETS. To consider the matter further, the Board approved the formation of a CAETS Strategy Review Group which would meet and present its findings at the 1998 meeting of the Board in Canada. The Group will comprise the Steering Committee and interested Members.
Related to the discussion on future direction were the following:
- Concerning a letter received by NAE/US from the IAP Co-President concerning possible CAETS participation in a year 2000 conference being organized by the IAP on "Transition to Sustainability", the Board consensus was that Members who wished to participate should collaborate on a joint national approach with the science academies in their countries.
- Concerning association with the UNCHS, the Board agreed that CAETS should remain willing to respond as appropriate to any new initiatives by the UNCHS. The Chinese Academy of Engineering was elected as the 16th Member of CAETS.
The Strategy Review Group (SRG) approved by the Board in Edinburgh met in London at the offices of the Royal Academy of Engineering on September 23-24, 1997. Members represented were: ATSE; ATV; CADAS; CAE/China; EAJ; IVA; and RAEng. In addition, comments provided by the following contributed to the discussions of the SRG: HAE; NFTW; SATW; NAE/US; and the Immediate Past President
The discussion, and the subsequent report prepared for consideration by the Governing Board at its next meeting, included the following items:
Mission and Objectives
Relationship to International Bodies and External Partners
Process of Networking, Convocations, etc.
Criteria for Membership
Regional Groupings within CAETS
Other Matters: Visits to Member Academies; Planning for Governing Board Meetings;
CAETS Statements and Intellectual Rights; CAETS Statements; Publications
On June 5, 1998, the Governing Board the Governing Board met in Ottawa, Canada, at the invitation of the Canadian Academy of Engineering and immediately following the Annual General Assembly of that academy. The Board accepted the recommendations of the Strategy Review Group and the resulting changes to General Rules and Guidelines for Operations.
The most significant change was the adoption of the following Mission Statement:
To foster effective contributions to engineering and technological progress
for the benefit of societies of all nations.
The Board also received from NFTW a summary of the report of the Working Party on Engineering Education. The Board requested that NFTW formulate its report into a document to be reviewed at the next meeting and later distributed to all Members for their use as each deems most appropriate.
On Financial Policy, the Board adopted a change to the annual assessments to the CAETS Operating Fund (COF) effective with Fiscal Year 1999. The change provides for ease of financial management for the Members in that there will be a stated level of assessment which is not expected to be exceeded for several years. An annual budget will continue to be presented for Board approval as before, the difference between the assessment and the approved budget to be shown as "contingency". This amount will be used as may be necessary to augment the other approved lines of the COF. The balance remaining at the end of the fiscal year will be added to the CAETS Reserve Fund (CRF).
The Ukrainian Academy of Engineering Sciences and the Academy of Engineering in Poland were elected as the 17th and 18th Members of CAETS. An application from the Indian National Academy of Engineering was deferred without prejudice until after such time as a visit to the academy could be made by the CAETS Steering Committee, a policy established by the Board at this meeting.
Thirteenth Convocation: Hosted by CADAS in Sophia Antipolis, France on May 24-27, 1999
Theme: Technology and Health
Sessions: Imaging Technologies
A century of in vivo imaging
Comparative evaluation of risks and benefits
Impact of new technologies in medical imaging
Study of cognitive functions in human neurophysiology
Future of imaging technology
Technology and the imaging profession
Drugs, Vaccines, Gene Therapy
Modern technologies for future drug design
Gene therapy; general viewpoint, state of the art and prospects
Vaccines and technologies for vaccines
Genomics and DNA chips
Medicinal chemistry-molecular biology interface
Food industry and nutrition
Functional foods-a scientific and communication challenge
New and future technologies to secure hygienic and nutritional food value
Hygienic quality vs. sensorial attributes of foods
Genetically modified organisms and consumer benefits
New products, new markets
Health of the plant and human health
Biomechanics, prosthetics, traumatology
Palliative technologies based on neuronal plasticity, neurosciences and robotics
Biomaterials in ophthalmology
Biomaterials for skeletal repair
Adaptation and ergonomy of prosthesis and physiological studies linked to design
Risk management linked to new technologies
Actual and virtual risks
Technological experts and decision makers
Several important announcements were made during remarks at the opening of the Convocation. The President of ICSU, noting that composition of ICSU included much more than "scientific unions" as expressed in the organization title, science academies, for example, stated that the title ICSU was being changed to IUS, International Union of Science, to better reflect both the focus and broad range of its membership.
An announcement by the President of the French Academy of Science was greeted with enthusiasm by the conference participants. He said that after considerable review, and noting the substantial growth and activity by CADAS, steps were underway to re-organize CADAS into an independent academy of engineering co-equal with the academy of sciences. Among the areas still under consideration were the place of such a new academy within the Institute de France or outside of it.
The Governing Board met on May 28, 1999, the day following the Convocation. Engineering education was again a main area of discussion. The draft report on this topic prepared for the Board by NFTW was accepted with the condition that members had two weeks to comment or add to the report, after which NFTW was requested to prepare the report in final form and distribute it to the members. The final report was subsequently published and copies sent to all Members. Copies were also sent to all non-member academies.
In view of the continuing discussion on engineering education since the first meetings of CAETS, the Vice President proposed the establishment of a commissioned CAETS Distinguished Lecture on the subject to be included at the opening of each future Convocation. The Board supported the proposal with the proviso that the distinguished lecture could be on any important engineering and technology topic. The topic will be selected by the Convocation Host and proposed to the Board for approval at a Board meeting prior to the Convocation. During this meeting, the CAETS membership was increased to 22 academies. Unanimously elected were the Indian National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Engineering of Argentina, the Engineering Academy of the Czech Republic, and the Spanish Academy of Engineering. The application of the National Academy of Engineering of Korea was deferred pending a visit to Korea to visit the academy as well as to KAST, the Korean Academy of Science and Technology, which also applied for CAETS membership, but which application did not arrive in time for Board review.
The Vice President/Secretary commented on the expansion of CAETS to 22 members and the likelihood that there will be additional applications which may be accepted at the next Board meeting and in the ensuing years, for example, the engineering academies of Croatia, Slovenia, Uruguay, and Korea. He stated that a review of the CAETS organization, structure, operations, and management was needed; that what has worked until now would become increasingly less efficient, not only resulting from the increased efforts required by the larger membership but also from the likelihood of increased CAETS activities and resulting publications. He proposed that a Strategy Task Group, composed of several senior principals of the membership and the Steering Committee, be organized to consider various options for the future functioning of CAETS. The Steering Committee was requested by the Board to arrange for such a meeting and to prepare a brief statement of purpose for the meeting including, in addition to the elements outline above, an increased pro-active and outgoing role for CAETS. It was requested that an effort should be made to have the Task Group proposals and recommendations available for Board review at its next meeting in October 2000.
The President, noted that the Vice President/Secretary, Mr. Steven N. Anastasion, would be retiring at the end of 1999. In behalf of the Board, he presented Mr. Anastasion the Board's Resolution of Appreciation for his work in the development of the CAETS goals and objectives, its organization and procedures, its growth, and its management since 1985. The Board honored Mr. Anastasion with the title of Vice President Emeritus, effective January 1, 2000, providing for a continuing association with CAETS.
The Board endorsed the NAE/US nomination of Mr. William C. Salmon and elected him to succeed Mr. Anastasion as Vice President/Secretary on January 1, 2000.
On October 21, 1999, the Steering Committee met in Stockholm, Sweden during a visit to the 80th Anniversary meeting of IVA. Also attending were the Vice President/Secretary-elect, the Past President, and representatives of RAEng, AIP, and CAE/China. The Committee reviewed and accepted the draft Statement of Purpose document prepared by the Vice President/Secretary. The place and time selected for the STG meeting is Paris during March 27-29, 2000. The final Statement of Purpose, with member comments enclosed, was sent to all members.
1. Engineering Education: At its April 2, 1987 meeting, the Governing Board approved the proposal of the Fellowship of Engineering for a workshop to address the topic. Three workshops were organized and hosted for CAETS in London by the Fellowship. In its summary report to the Governing Board on May 23, 1992, The Fellowship noted several factors for the international interest in engineering education:
-impact of information technology
-blurring of dividing lines between traditional disciplines
-recognition by industrialized countries of the need to educate a greater proportion of the workforce to a professional level
-the increase in knowledge to be assimilated
-the perceived need to include business skills, language, law and other topics in the undergraduate course
-the shortages of engineers overall at the professional level (although recognizing variations between disciplines and levels of work)
The first workshop, hosted by The Fellowship for CAETS, was held in London on November 18, 1987. Representatives of the Members present exchanged information on the following topics:
-matching educational provision to meet future national needs
-the multi-disciplinary systems approach to engineering
-the structure of undergraduate engineering
-the structure of postgraduate education
-interaction between academic/industrial sectors
-continuing education and training
The Proceedings of The International Meeting on Engineering Education for the 21st Century, published by The Fellowship, identified three issues that warranted further consideration:
-how to recruit sufficient engineer of high caliber
-how to maintain the quality of teaching despite an increasing knowledge base, and
-how to increase the recognition and support (including industrial) for continuing education.
The second meeting of the workshop was held on October 24, 1989 in London. The members continued their discussions from the first meeting and heard presentations on several topics, including:
-education and training of chartered engineers
-strategies for teaching and learning in the field of engineering
-use of information technology in engineering education
-creativity in engineering design
-core curriculum and future engineering qualifications
-an NAE/US study, Focus on the Future
-principles for industrial links with and for education
-quality in engineering education, and
-engineering under private finance.
A third session was agreed to for the purpose of preparing a summary of the conclusions of the workshop in a report to the Governing Board. Held in London on September 11, 1991, the members focused on quality in education, the curriculum as regards educational aims and what should be taught, encouraging recruitment with attention to reducing course overload and making them more problem-based, and continuing education and training. A Report of Third Workshop on Engineering Education was published by The Fellowship.
2. On June 4-6, 1991 in Budapest, Hungary, the US/NAE organized and hosted, with the assistance of the Hungarian Academy of Engineering, the CAETS conference on Harnessing Engineering and Technology for Economic Growth: Opening the Dialogue Between the Engineering Communities of the East and West. In addition to representatives of the CAETS Members, engineers from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and the USSR participated in the conference whose objectives were to:
-exchange information on issues affecting the use of engineering technology for economic progress in Eastern Europe;
-discuss policies necessary to foster the harnessing of engineering and technology to advance national economic growth, consistent with the differing traditions and social systems in each country;
-discuss development of an infrastructure, including technical education, and of international agreements such as those for intellectual property;
-discuss the importance of independent, non-governmental engineering institutions for advising governments.
Two CAETS reports were published following the conference, the findings and conclusions in a document with the conference title, and a directory, Technical Resource Information for Central and Eastern Europe, which identified some of the key programs, organizations and resources that facilitate exchange of engineering information and personnel between CAETS members' countries and the Central and Eastern European countries. Both publications were given wide international distribution under signature of the President.
CAETS Endorsement of Member Activities
There are two levels of CAETS association with Member activities that the Board may grant at the request of a Member. One is through the assistance and cooperation from individual Members or from the Board regarding suggestions for topics, identification of speakers and participants from developing and developed countries. Another is through formal CAETS endorsement of a Member's activity.
1. Cross-Border Technology Transfer to Eliminate Ozone-Depleting Substances: (Member Assistance) This international workshop of NAE/US was held on April 22-25, 1991. The workshop report identifies issues that participants discussed as impediments to technology transfer to substitute for ozone-depleting substances, and presents various suggestions and ideas of the participants on possible steps to speed technology transfer. The workshop was organized to hear discussions of national ozone policies and trade issues, extending the information loop, lessons from hydrocarbon aerosol technology transfer, challenges in refrigeration and air-conditioning, moving ahead on fluorinated chemicals, and the role of multilateral organizations.
2. Technology Transfer/Technology Diffusion: (Member Assistance) This topic was the subject of the 3rd EAJ international symposium held on March 14-15, 1994 in Yokohama. The conference reviewed the history of how developing countries of the past (for example, U.S. and Japan) were able successfully to transfer technology from Europe into their countries in order to extract lessons which can be applied to current developing countries. Also reviewed, for the same purpose, was the successful conversion, after WWII, in Germany and Japan of their military industry to civilian industry.
3. Industrial Ecology: (Member Assistance) The purpose of this NAE/US international conference held in California during May 9-13, 1994 was to examine and exchange information on industry practices, government initiatives, and management philosophies contributing to improving environmental characteristics of industrial ecosystems. It explored how companies go about the business of being environmental stewards and what it means to excel as environmental custodians in the complex global competitive and environmentally sensitive sphere of operations. Sessions and working group meetings discussed:
-industrial ecology: technology, management, and education
-environmental laws, regulations, and international trends effecting environmental innovation and practice
-metrics for gauging environmental progress
-life-cycle practices, and
-cultural and organizational change
4. Life Cycle Assessment: (Member Assistance) Building on an international workshop which was held in Denmark on April 25,26, 1994, ATV has planned a series of activities dealing with LCA to discuss the results of the first phase of its work and to formulate recommendations for the continuing phases. The basic objectives of the ATV project are to develop LCA methods for assessing the overall impacts of a product, as tools for industrial product development and for environmental labeling. Initial focus will be on the food industry with case studies conducted to demonstrate practical application.
5. Engineering for Sustainable Development: (CAETS Endorsement) This conference organized by RAEng and was held on 21-22 September, 1995 in London, England. The objective of the conference was to explore the challenges and opportunities for engineers and to register the importance of the engineering contribution for technological solutions to sustainability issues. The conference opened with a discussion of society's expectations of engineers as it strives to improve human well-being without further environmental degradation. Following were two illustrative sessions. The first, on manufacturing, dealt with novel and more efficient products, automotive design for environmental protection, and sustainable product lifecycles. The second, on transport, considered the multi-disciplinary character of transport, system problems and incremental solutions, and understanding and managing the 'car dependency' of modern lifestyles.
6. Technology Policy In A Borderless World Economy: (CAETS Endorsement) This Fourth International Symposium of the EAJ was held September 11-12, 1996 in Tokyo, Japan. The objective of the conference was to consider the changing roles of government and the nature of potential changes to national technology policy in view of the continuing lowering of barriers on international economic activities and the accelerating internationalization of activities of multi-national manufacturing companies. CAETS participated directly through a panel of representatives of five Members each of whom addressed the topic from the perspective of their own country.
7. Engineering and Technological Sciences in the 21st Century: (CAETS Endorsement) The Symposium of the Chinese Academy of Engineering will be held in Beijing during the first week of October 2000. The Symposium will deal with the increasing responsibilities of engineers and scientists for social progress and economic development.
8. Information Infrastructure of the 21st Century and International Cooperation: (CAETS Endorsement) The objectives of the 5th EAJ International Symposium are to analyze issues associated with information infrastructure of the next century and to propose a framework for international cooperation to solve potential problems. It will be held in Tokyo during January 2000. EAJ will be joined in its Symposium by the Japan Society for Promotion of Science.
The producing organization and, where different, the publisher are listed.
1980 The Management of Technological Change; Proceedings of the Second Convocation;
Australian Academy of Technical Sciences and Engineering
1981 Engineering Education; Proceedings of the Third Convocation;
National Academy of Engineering/Mexico
1982 Important Technological Trends; Proceedings of the Fourth Convocation;
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
1985 The Global Interaction of Technology; Proceedings of the Fifth Convocation;
The Fellowship of Engineering, United Kingdom
1986 Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives; Proceedings of the Sixth
Convocation, National Academy of Engineering/United States
1987 The International Meeting on Engineering Education for the 21st Century;
Proceedings; The Fellowship of Engineering, United Kingdom
1988 Technology for Living on the Frontiers;
Proceedings of the Seventh Convocation Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
1991 Harnessing Technology for Development; Summary Report of the Eighth Convocation;
National Academy of Engineering, United States
1991 Report of Third Workshop on Engineering Education;
The Fellowship of Engineering, United Kingdom
1991 Harnessing Engineering and Technology for Economic Growth:
Opening the Dialogue Between the Engineering Communities of the East and West;
Summary Report of the Budapest Conference;
National Academy of Engineering/United States
1992 Technical Resource Information for Central and Eastern Europe;
National Academy of Engineering/United States
1993 The Technological Future; 1. Proceedings of the Ninth Convocation; 2. An Executive
Summary of the Proceedings; Danish Academy of Technical Sciences
1994 Harnessing Technology for Development; Proceedings of the Eighth Convocation;
National Academy of Engineering/Mexico
1995 Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Developing Transportation for Society;
1. Proceedings of the Tenth Convocation;
2. Sustainable Mobility (SATW Supplement);
Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences
1996 The Role of Technology in Environmentally Sustainable Development;
Declaration of the Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences;
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
(Edition for the 1996 UN Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II)
published by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering)
1997 Creating Wealth In Harmony With The Environment;
Proceedings of the Eleventh Convocation; Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
1998 Engineering Innovation & Society; Proceedings of the Twelfth Convocation;
The Royal Academy of Engineering, United Kingdom
1999 Engineering Education Report of the Working Party; Netherlands Society of
Technological Sciences and Engineering; published by CAETS
2000 Technology and Health; Proceedings of the Thirteenth Convocation;
Council for Applications of the Academy of Sciences (France)
Founding Members (1978)
Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE)
The Royal Academy of Engineering of the United Kingdom (RAEng)
National Academy of Engineering of Mexico (ANIAC)(in 1994 with the Mexican Academy of
Engineering formed the Mexican Academies of Engineering [MAE] for CAETS
National Academy of Engineering of the United States (NAE/US)
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA)
Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) (1987)
Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW) (1988)
Council for Applications of the French Academy of Sciences (CADAS) (1989)
Finnish Academies of Technology (FACTE)(Represents both the Finnish Academy (1989)
of Technology and the Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in Finland)
Engineering Academy of Japan (EAJ) (1990)
Belgian Royal Academy Council of Applied Sciences (R.BACAS) (1990)
Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA) (1990)
Canadian Academy of Engineering (CAE/Canada) (1991)
Netherlands Society of Technological Sciences and Engineering (NFTW) (1993)
Hungarian Academy of Engineering (MMA) (1995)
Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE/China) (1997)
Ukrainian Academy of Engineering Sciences (UAES) (1998)
Academy of Engineering in Poland (AIP) (1998)
Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) (1999)
National Academy of Engineering of Argentina (NAE/ARG) (1999)
Engineering Academy of the Czech Republic (EA CR) (1999)
Spanish Academy of Engineering (AIE) (1999)
Convocation Steering Committee
1978 Chairman: N. Bruce Hannay NAE/US
1978-1981 Chairman: Gunnar Hambraeus IVA
1980-1981 Secretary: Hugh Miller US
1981-1983 President: Robert Ward ATS
Vice Pres: Alejandro Lopez Toledo ANIAC
Secretary: Hugh Miller US
1983-1985 President: Alejandro Lopez Toledo ANIAC
Vice Pres: N. Bruce Hannay NAE/US
Secretary: Hugh Miller US
Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences
1985-1987 President: H. Guyford Stever NAE/US
Vice Pres: David Zeidler ATS
Secretary: Steven N. Anastasion US
1987-1988 President: David Zeidler ATS
Vice Pres: Marco Murray Lasso ANIAC
Secretary: Steven N. Anastasion US
1988-1990 President: Marco Murray Lasso ANIAC
Vice Pres: Erik B Rasmussen ATV
Secretary: Steven N. Anastasion US
1991-1992 President: Erik B. Rasmussen ATV
First V.P. Luc Tissot SATW
V.P./Sec'y: Steven N. Anastasion US
1993-1994 President: Luc Tissot SATW
First V.P.: Hans G. Forsberg IVA
V.P./Sec'y: Steven N. Anastasion US
1995-1996 President: Hans G. Forsberg IVA
(to 9/13/96) First V.P.: William Barlow RAEng
(fm 9/14.96) First V.P.: David E.N. Davies RAEng
V.P./Sec'y: Steven N. Anastasion US
1997-1998 President: David E.N. Davies RAEng
First V.P.: Michel Lavalou CADAS
V.P./Sec'y: Steven N. Anastasion US
1999- President: Michel Lavalou CADAS
(to 12/31/99) First V.P. Juhani Ahava FACTE
(fm 1/1/00) First V.P. Jaakko Ihamuotila FACTE
(to 12/31/99) V.P./Sec'y: Steven N. Anastasion US
(fm 1/1/00) V.P./Sec'y: William C. Salmon US
List of CAETS Convocations
and Int. Assns. Number of
Convocation Host Represented Participants **
1 (1978) NAE/US 8 15 (12)
2 (1980) ATS 9 22 (11)
3 (1981) ANIAC 10 31 (21)
4 (1983) IVA 19 61 (52)
5 (1985) FOE/UK 16 119 (51)
6 (1987) NAE/US 25 108 (74)
7 (1988) ATS 19 119 (51)
8 (1990) ANIAC 21 91 (70)
9 (1992) ATV 27 112 (78)
10 (1993) SATW 27 148 (97)
11 (1995) IVA 27 97 (81)
12 (1997) RAEng 29 103 (78)
13 (1999) CADAS 26 145 (132)
14 (2001) FACTE (planned)
15 (2003) NAE/US (planned)
16 (2005) ATSE (planned)
** Numbers in Parentheses are participants from countries other than the Host country.